python-course.eu

11. Operators

By Bernd Klein. Last modified: 13 Apr 2022.

Introduction

This chapter covers the various built-in operators, which Python has to offer.

Live Python training

instructor-led training course

Enjoying this page? We offer live Python training courses covering the content of this site.

See: Live Python courses overview

Enrol here

Operators

These operations (operators) can be applied to all numeric types:

Operator Description Example
+, - Addition, Subtraction 10 -3
*, % Multiplication, Modulo 27 % 7
Result: 6
/ Division
This operation brings about different results for Python 2.x (like floor division) and Python 3.x
Python3:
10  / 3
3.3333333333333335
and in Python 2.x:
10  / 3
3
// Truncation Division (also known as floordivision or floor division)
The result of this division is the integral part of the result, i.e. the fractional part is truncated, if there is any.
It works both for integers and floating-point numbers, but there is a difference between the type of the results: If both the dividend and the divisor are integers, the result will also be an integer. If either the divident or the divisor is a float, the result will be the truncated result as a float.
10 // 3
3
If at least one of the operands is a float value, we get a truncated float value as the result.
10.0 // 3
3.0
>>> 
A note about efficiency:
The results of int(10 / 3) and 10 // 3 are equal. But the "//" division is more than two times as fast! You can see this here:
In [9]: %%timeit
for x in range(1, 100):
    y = int(100 / x)
      : 
100000 loops, best of 3: 11.1 μs per loop
In [10]: %%timeit
for x in range(1, 100):
    y = 100 // x
       : 
100000 loops, best of 3: 4.48 μs per loop
+x, -x Unary minus and Unary plus (Algebraic signs) -3
~x Bitwise negation ~3 - 4
Result: -8
** Exponentiation 10 ** 3
Result: 1000
or, and, not Boolean Or, Boolean And, Boolean Not (a or b) and c
in "Element of" 1 in [3, 2, 1]
<, ≤, >, ≥, !=, == The usual comparison operators 2 ≤ 3
|, &, ^ Bitwise Or, Bitwise And, Bitwise XOR 6 ^ 3
<, > Shift Operators 6 < 3

Live Python training

instructor-led training course

Enjoying this page? We offer live Python training courses covering the content of this site.

See: Live Python courses overview

Upcoming online Courses

Python Basics for Beginners

29 Aug 2022 to 02 Sep 2022
17 Oct 2022 to 21 Oct 2022

Intensive Advanced Course

30 May 2022 to 03 Jun 2022
29 Aug 2022 to 02 Sep 2022
17 Oct 2022 to 21 Oct 2022

Python for Engineers and Scientists

29 Aug 2022 to 02 Sep 2022
17 Oct 2022 to 21 Oct 2022

Object Oriented Programming with Python

01 Jun 2022 to 03 Jun 2022
31 Aug 2022 to 02 Sep 2022
19 Oct 2022 to 21 Oct 2022

Enrol here